Lithuanian

Table of Contents

1 Dictionaries

2 Grammar

2.1 accent

2.2 word formation

2.3 verbs

  PIE Ved. Hit. Lith. Grk. OLat.
1sg -m -m -nun -u -n -m
  -m̥ -am -un -mi -a  
2sg -s -s -si -s -s
3sg -t -t -t -d
1du -wē̆ -vā̆   -va    
2du -tom -tam   -ta -ton  
3du -tām? -tām   -t    

2.3.1 participles

Dalỹviai.

Ambrazas §5.112, p. 326 et seqq.

  • suk-ti ‘to rotate’
    • suk-ą̃-s ‘rotating’
      • suką̃-si-s ‘rotating itself’ (reflexive)
    • sùk-ę-s ‘rotated’
      • sùkę-si-s ‘rotated itself’ (refl.)
    • sùk-dav-ę-s ‘used to rotate’ (frequentative?)
      • sukdavę-si-s ‘used to rotate itself’ (refl.)
    • sùk-sią-s ‘will rotate’ (future)
      • sùksią-si-s ‘will rotate itself’ (refl.)

Pãdalyviai. Gerunds.

Pùsdalyviai. ‘Half-participles’.

  • eĩ-ti ‘to go’
    • ei-dam- ‘while going’
      • eĩdam-as eidamì masc.
      • eidam-à eĩdamos fem.

Ambrazas §5.125, p. 347. Reflexive participles.

Reflexive without prefix gets -i- in the singular and -si- in the plural.

2.4 declension

  • brālis → brolis
  • sesō? → sesuo
  • *tautāmis → tautóm
case PIE old lith lith form Senn
nom. sg. *-s -a-s -a-s výras §92.1
nom. pl. *-es   -i, -V̄s? výrai, motinos  
voc. sg. *-ø, th. -e   -e vaike  
voc. pl. = nom. pl.     = nom. pl.  
acc. sg. *-m -Ṽ -ą, -į &c vaiką  
acc. pl. *-m-s > -ns   -us, -as vaik-us, pači-as  
instr. sg. *-h₁i? -m(i) -m výram §92.2
instr. pl. *-(m/bh)is, -ōis -m(i)s   výrams §92.3
dat. sg. *-ei, th. *-ōi   m. -ui, f. -ai vaikui, motinai  
dat. pl. *-(m/bh)(i)os -m(u)s, -m(s) -ms, -m výras → výram(u)s §89, §92.6
gen. sg. *-e/os, *-syo *-ōt > o?   vaiko  
gen. pl. *-h₂-om   vaikų  
loc. pl. *-(i)-su -sa, -se, -su -se, -uo,os   §90, §92.5
loc. sg. *-i -(o,ė,y,u)je, -ame -e výre §92.4
all. sg.   -p(i) + gen. sg.   Jėsus → Jė́sausp §86
all. pl.   -p(i) + gen. pl.      
ades. sg.   -p(i) + loc. sg.   kitámp §87
ades. pl.   -p(i) + loc. pl.   žmogus → žmonesioḿp  
ill. sg.   -n(a) + acc. sg   vardas → vardañ §88
ill. pl.   -na + acc. pl.   dangus → danguasnu  

2.5 thematic declension

case PIE skt. OCS lith. hitt. grk. lat. PCelt. goth.
n/ac. sg. neu. yug-ó-m yug-ám ig-o   iug-an ζυγ-όν iug-um *iug-om juk-um
n/ac. pl. neu. yug-é-h₂ > -ā́ yug-ā́ ig-a   iug-a ζυγ-ά iug-a *iug-ā juk-a
nom. sg. wĺ̥kʷ-o-s vŕ̥k-as vlŭk-ŭ vil̃k-as arun-a-s λύκ-ος lup-us *wail-os wulf-s
nom. pl. wĺ̥kʷ-o-es > -ōs vŕ̥k-ās     arun-es       wulf-os
nom. pl. pron. wĺ̥kʷ-o-i   vlŭ-c-i vil̃k-ai   λύκ-οι lup-ī *wail-oi  
voc. sg. wĺ̥kʷ-e vŕ̥k-a vlŭ-č-e vil̃k-e   λύκ-ε lup-e *wail-e wulf-ø
voc. pl. = nom. pl.             *wail-ūs  
acc. sg. wĺ̥kʷ-o-m vŕ̥k-am vlŭk-ŭ vil̃k-ą arun-an λύκ-ον lup-um *wail-om wulf-ø
acc. pl. wĺ̥kʷ-om-s > -ons vŕ̥k-ān vlŭk-y vilk-ùs arun-us λύκ-ους lup-ōs *wail-ons wulf-e
gen. sg. wĺ̥kʷ-os-yo vŕ̥k-asya       λύκ-οιο lup-ī *wail-ī wulf-is
gen. pl. wĺ̥kʷ-o-H-om? vŕ̥k-ānām vlŭk-ŭ vil̃k-ų̄ arun-an λύκ-ων lup-ōr-um *wail-om wulf-e
abl. sg. wĺ̥kʷ-o-ed > -ōd vŕ̥k-ād vlŭk-a vil̃k-o arun-az [ts]   lup-ō(d)    
abl. pl. wĺ̥kʷ-o-i-(m/bh/ø)(i)-os? vŕ̥k-ebhyas         lup-īs    
dat. sg. wĺ̥kʷ-o-ei > -ōi vŕ̥k-āy-a vlŭk-u vil̃k-ui arun-i λύκ-ωι lup-ō *wail-ūi  
dat. pl. wĺ̥kʷ-o-i-(m/bh/ø)(i)-os? vŕ̥k-ebhyas vlŭk-omu vilk-ám(u)s arun-as   lup-īs *wail-obos wulf-am
loc. sg. wĺ̥kʷ-o-i vŕ̥k-e vlŭ-c-ě vilk-è arun-i λύκ-οι lup-ī    
loc. pl. wĺ̥kʷ-o-i-su vŕ̥k-eṣu vlŭ-c-ěxŭ vilk-uosè arun-as λύκ-οισι      
instr. sg. wĺ̥kʷ-o-h₁ vŕ̥k-eṇa vlŭk-omĭ vilk-ù arun-it     wail-ū wulf-a
instr. pl. wĺ̥kʷ-o-i-(m/bh/ø)is? vŕ̥k-ebhis vlŭk-y         wail-obis  

Cf. Beekes (2011) 13.2.9, p. 212.

  • PCelt. *wailos > OIr. faol
  • Hitt. aruna- ‘sea’

3 electronic resources

4 surnames

  • Senn, A. (1945). Lithuanian Surnames. American Slavic and East European Review, 4(1/2), 127. 10.2307/2491865

5 texts

6 readers


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