Sanskrit vocabulary

Table of Contents

tired
pariśrānta-. √śram ‘to get tired’ na mā śramat may I not be weary.
ready
सज्जः -ज्जं -ज्जा
small
kṣudra- kṣodīyas- kṣodiṣṭha-
big
mahant- mahīyas- mahiṣṭha-
new
yuvan- yavīyas- yaviṣṭha-
old
  1. vṛddha- vṛddhatara- vṛddhatama-
  2. sthavira- (cf. pāḷi thera-)
  3. jarant-, jīrṇa- ‘decayed’ (from √jṝ)
  4. cira- ‘existing from ancient times’
    1. ciraṃtana-, cirantanaṃ navanītam ‘old butter’
    2. cira-mitra- ‘old friend’
old, years
°-varṣa-. trayodaśa-varṣa- ‘13 years old’
(no term)
śrī- śreyas- śreṣṭha-
to think
  1. √cint, cintayati
  2. √man, manyate
to know
  1. √jñā jānāsi
  2. √vid veda
to ask
√pṛc/√praś pṛcchati
question
praśnam (cf. lat. precor, prex)
answer
  1. uttaram
  2. prativacanam
if
yadi
then
tarhi
else
  1. anyathā
  2. na cet / no cet?
after
seen a. a long time बहोर्दृष्टं कालात्,
page
pattram
tat me rocate
that pleases me ~ I like that (tan me rocate)
anuhṛhīto ’smi
I’m obliged
pare kāle
next time
√bandh [9,1] (badhnāti, bandhati)
‘to bind’ fut. bhantsyati
mithunam
coniunctio carnalis
good
susthaḥ °sthaṃ °sthā.
better
sustha-tara-

1 days, planets, calendrics &c

day
dinam, ahar/ahan-, vāsaraḥ
day (of the week)
vāraḥ
daily
pratyaha-
every day
ahar-ahaḥ, pratyaham
day by day
dive dive (ved.) dyavi dyavi, anu dyūn?
day and night
ahorātram (ved.?)
rainy, cloudy day
durdinam
as a verb: durdināyate ‘it becomes cloudy’
for three days
dinatrayam.
“dinatrayaṃ jāpaḥ kṛtaḥ” ‘he did japa for three days’ (acc. of time)
… days ago
tribhyo dinebhyaḥ pūrvam
three days before
dinatrayāt pūrvam
idem (dina-traya- ‘3 days’)
hyas
yesterday, heri
adya
today, hodie
śvas
tomorrow, cras
paraśvaḥ
day after tomorrow

1.1 planets and the cardinal points

    .  
dik northwest north northeast
devatā marut-, vāyu- kubera- īśa-, īśāna-
grahaḥ candramas- budha- bṛhaspati-
dik west   east
devatā varuṇa-   indra-
grahaḥ bhānuja- = śani-   ravi-
dik southwest south southeast
devatā nairṛta- yama-, pitṛpati- agni- = vahni-
grahaḥ rāhu- mahīsūnu- = maṅgala- śukra-

1.2 planets and weekdays

Apparently the oldest known attestation of a seven-day week is this Budhagupta inscription. Before the saptāhaḥ there was a ṣaḍ-ahaḥ, with many instances in the aitareya-brāhmaṇa for instance.

Days of the week with Hindī reflexes.

weekday hindi 1 skt 1 hindi 2 skt 2 skt 3
sunday ravi-vār ravi-vāraḥ it° āditya° bhānu-vāsara-
monday som° soma° candra° candra° indu°
tuesday maṅgal° maṅgala° bhaum° bhauma° bhauma°
wednesday budh° budha° -   saumya°
thursday guru° guru° bṛhaspati° bṛhaspati° guru°
friday śukra° śukra° -   bhṛgu°
saturday śani° śani° -   sthira°

Planet names with alternatives.

weekday planet  
sunday āditya-, ravi-  
monday soma-, candra-, indu-  
tuesday maṅgala-, bhauma-, aṅgara-  
wednesday budha-, saumya-  
thursday bṛhaspati-, (deva-)guru-  
friday śukra-, bhṛgu-!  
saturday śanaiścara-, śani-, sthira-  
  • Śukra is the son of Bhṛgu and Pulomā.
√gam [1] (gacchati)
‘to go’ opt. gacche-
gaccheyam gaccheḥ gacchet
gaccheva gacchetam gacchetām
gacchema gaccheta gaccheyuḥ
anu + AC.
‘after something (AC)’
√śru
‘hear’ śṛṇo-ti.
hark!
śrudhi κλῦθι
√śak (śak-no-ti)
‘to be able’. cf. śakti- &c.
Brazil
brājīl(y)a-, brājīlya-deśaḥ.

2 questions

Speyer §408. Interrogative sentences are twofold. Sometimes it is the whole action or fact, which is put in question, as “is he gone?”, sometimes it is not the fact itself but one of its elements, that is asked after, as: “where does he dwell? who has seen him?” Questions of the latter type are introduced by interrogative pronouns or adverbs, those of the former 1st by particles, which partly are also derivatives from the interrogative pronoun, 2ly the interrogation is signified by the mere mode of pronouncing.

https://archive.org/details/sanskritsyntax00speigoog/page/n334

3 numerals

    Pāṇ. -tayaP Pāṇ -ayáC  
eka- ekaḥ ekataya-    
dvi- dvau dvitaya- -dvayam māsa-dvayam ‘dois meses’
tri- trayaḥ tritaya- -trayam māsa-trayam ‘três meses’
catur- catvaraḥ catuṣṭaya-   jala-catvaram ‘tanque quadrado’
pañca- pañca pañcataya-    
ṣaṣ- ṣaṭ ṣaṭṭaya-    
sapta- sapta saptataya-    
aṣṭa- aṣṭā(u) aṣṭā̆taya-    
nava- nava ?    
daśa- daśa daśataya-    
  • what about catvaram?

Aṣṭ. 5-2-42. संख्याया अवयवे तयप्‌

The affix tayap (_ _((taya))) comes after a numeral, in the sense of "that whereof the parts are so many"

Cf. "The Yoga-System of Patañjali", Woods, pg. 19.

9d7cfbf2e18643e8f1a44db5886e8583.png

Aṣṭ. 5-2-43. द्वित्रिभ्यां तयस्यायज्वा

The affix ayach (((aya))) is optionally the substitute of tayap, after words dvi and tri.

Aṣṭ. 4.1.15. टिड्ढाणञ्द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रच्तयप्ठक्ठञ्कञ्क्वरपः

The affix ((ṅīp)) is added, in the feminine, after the Nominal-stems ending in short ((a)), if the affix with which it ends has an indicatory ((ṭ)), or if the affix be (( ha)), or ((aṇ)), or ((añ)) or ((dvayasac)), or ((daghnac)), or ((mātrac)), or ((tayap)), or ((thak)), or ((ṭhañ)) or ((kañ)) or ((kvarap))||

Pāṇini

catvāro ’vayavā yasyāḥ sā catuṣṭayī Scholastic Sanskrit 78.

‘Aquela de que há quatro partes (avayava-), ela é quádrupla (catuṣṭayī).’


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